## Maximum Conversion Efficiency Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell)
ηmax = (Im*Vm)/(IT*Ac)
This formula uses 5 Variables
Variables Used
Maximum Conversion Efficiency - Maximum Conversion Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the maximum useful power to the incident solar radiation.
Current at Maximum Power - (Measured in Ampere) - Current at Maximum Power is the current at which maximum power occurs .
Voltage at Maximum Power - (Measured in Volt) - Voltage at Maximum Power is the voltage at which maximum power occurs.
Flux Incident on Top Cover - (Measured in Watt per Square Meter) - Flux Incident on Top Cover is the total incident flux on the top cover which is the sum of incident beam component and incident diffuse component.
Area of Solar Cell - (Measured in Square Meter) - Area of Solar Cell is the area that absorbs/receives radiation from the sun which is then converted into electrical energy.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Current at Maximum Power: 0.11 Ampere --> 0.11 Ampere No Conversion Required
Voltage at Maximum Power: 0.46 Volt --> 0.46 Volt No Conversion Required
Flux Incident on Top Cover: 450 Joule per Second per Square Meter --> 450 Watt per Square Meter (Check conversion here)
Area of Solar Cell: 2.5 Square Millimeter --> 2.5E-06 Square Meter (Check conversion here)
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
ηmax = (Im*Vm)/(IT*Ac) --> (0.11*0.46)/(450*2.5E-06)
Evaluating ... ...
ηmax = 44.9777777777778
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
44.9777777777778 --> No Conversion Required
44.9777777777778 <-- Maximum Conversion Efficiency
(Calculation completed in 00.000 seconds)
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## < 20 Photovoltaic Conversion Calculators

Reverse Saturation Current given Maximum Power of Cell
Reverse Saturation Current = (Maximum Power Output of cell*((1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power^2)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))))-Short Circuit Current in Solar cell
Short Circuit Current given Maximum Power of Cell
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = (Maximum Power Output of cell*((1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power^2)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))))-Reverse Saturation Current
Maximum power output of cell
Maximum Power Output of cell = ((([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power^2)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin)))*(Short Circuit Current in Solar cell+Reverse Saturation Current)
Load current corresponding to Maximum power
Load Current in Solar cell = ((([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin)))*(Short Circuit Current in Solar cell+Reverse Saturation Current)
Reverse Saturation Current given Load current at Maximum Power
Reverse Saturation Current = (Current at Maximum Power*((1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))))-Short Circuit Current in Solar cell
Short Circuit Current given Load Current at Maximum Power
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = (Current at Maximum Power*((1+([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))/(([Charge-e]*Voltage at Maximum Power)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))))-Reverse Saturation Current
Short Circuit Current given Load Current and Reverse Saturation Current
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = Load Current in Solar cell+(Reverse Saturation Current*(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/(Ideality Factor in Solar Cells*[BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1))
Reverse Saturation Current given Load Current and Short Circuit Current
Reverse Saturation Current = (Short Circuit Current in Solar cell-Load Current in Solar cell)/(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/(Ideality Factor in Solar Cells*[BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1)
Load Current in Solar cell = Short Circuit Current in Solar cell-(Reverse Saturation Current*(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/(Ideality Factor in Solar Cells*[BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1))
Reverse Saturation Current given Power of Photovoltaic Cell
Reverse Saturation Current = (Short Circuit Current in Solar cell-(Power of Photovoltaic cell/Voltage in solar cell))*(1/(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1))
Short Circuit Current given Power of Photovoltaic Cell
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = (Power of Photovoltaic cell/Voltage in solar cell)+(Reverse Saturation Current*(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1))
Power of Photovoltaic cell
Power of Photovoltaic cell = (Short Circuit Current in Solar cell- (Reverse Saturation Current*(e^(([Charge-e]*Voltage in solar cell)/([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin))-1)))*Voltage in solar cell
Open Circuit Voltage given Reverse Saturation Current
Open Circuit Voltage = (([BoltZ]*Temperature in Kelvin)/[Charge-e])*(ln((Short Circuit Current in Solar cell/Reverse Saturation Current)+1))
Fill Factor of Solar Cell given Maximum Conversion Efficiency
Fill Factor of Solar Cell = (Maximum Conversion Efficiency*Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell)/(Short Circuit Current in Solar cell*Open Circuit Voltage)
Short Circuit Current given Maximum Conversion Efficiency
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = (Maximum Conversion Efficiency*Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell)/(Fill Factor of Solar Cell*Open Circuit Voltage)
Short Circuit Current given Fill Factor of Cell
Short Circuit Current in Solar cell = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Open Circuit Voltage*Fill Factor of Solar Cell)
Fill Factor of Cell
Fill Factor of Solar Cell = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Short Circuit Current in Solar cell*Open Circuit Voltage)
Voltage given Fill Factor of Cell
Voltage at Maximum Power = (Fill Factor of Solar Cell*Short Circuit Current in Solar cell*Open Circuit Voltage)/Current at Maximum Power
Incident Solar Flux given Maximum Conversion Efficiency
Flux Incident on Top Cover = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Maximum Conversion Efficiency*Area of Solar Cell)
Maximum Conversion Efficiency
Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell)

## Maximum Conversion Efficiency Formula

Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell)
ηmax = (Im*Vm)/(IT*Ac)

## Why is a solar cell not 100% efficient?

Solar cells can never reach 100% efficiency because the solar spectrum puts out photons with a broad range of energies. Some of those photons will have higher energy than the band gap of the semiconductor used in the solar cell and will be absorbed creating an electron-hole pair.

## How to Calculate Maximum Conversion Efficiency?

Maximum Conversion Efficiency calculator uses Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell) to calculate the Maximum Conversion Efficiency, The Maximum Conversion Efficiency formula is defined as the ratio of the maximum useful power to the incident solar radiation. Maximum Conversion Efficiency is denoted by ηmax symbol.

How to calculate Maximum Conversion Efficiency using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Maximum Conversion Efficiency, enter Current at Maximum Power (Im), Voltage at Maximum Power (Vm), Flux Incident on Top Cover (IT) & Area of Solar Cell (Ac) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Maximum Conversion Efficiency calculation can be explained with given input values -> 44.97778 = (0.11*0.46)/(450*2.5E-06).

### FAQ

What is Maximum Conversion Efficiency?
The Maximum Conversion Efficiency formula is defined as the ratio of the maximum useful power to the incident solar radiation and is represented as ηmax = (Im*Vm)/(IT*Ac) or Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell). Current at Maximum Power is the current at which maximum power occurs , Voltage at Maximum Power is the voltage at which maximum power occurs, Flux Incident on Top Cover is the total incident flux on the top cover which is the sum of incident beam component and incident diffuse component & Area of Solar Cell is the area that absorbs/receives radiation from the sun which is then converted into electrical energy.
How to calculate Maximum Conversion Efficiency?
The Maximum Conversion Efficiency formula is defined as the ratio of the maximum useful power to the incident solar radiation is calculated using Maximum Conversion Efficiency = (Current at Maximum Power*Voltage at Maximum Power)/(Flux Incident on Top Cover*Area of Solar Cell). To calculate Maximum Conversion Efficiency, you need Current at Maximum Power (Im), Voltage at Maximum Power (Vm), Flux Incident on Top Cover (IT) & Area of Solar Cell (Ac). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Current at Maximum Power, Voltage at Maximum Power, Flux Incident on Top Cover & Area of Solar Cell and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well. Let Others Know