## Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))
VOL(RL) = VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VDD/(Kn*RL)))
This formula uses 1 Functions, 5 Variables
Functions Used
sqrt - A square root function is a function that takes a non-negative number as an input and returns the square root of the given input number., sqrt(Number)
Variables Used
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Resistive load minimum output voltage for a resistive load is the lowest voltage level that a device or circuit can reliably provide at its output terminal when operating under specified conditions.
Supply Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Supply voltage refers to the voltage level provided by a power source to an electrical circuit or device, serving as the potential difference for current flow and operation.
Zero Bias Threshold Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Zero bias threshold voltage refers to the threshold voltage of a MOSFET when no additional bias voltage is applied to the substrate, typically measured between gate and source.
Transconductance of NMOS - (Measured in Ampere per Square Volt) - Transconductance of NMOS refers to the ratio of the change in the output drain current to the change in the input gate-source voltage when the drain-source voltage is constant.
Load Resistance - (Measured in Ohm) - Load Resistance is the resistance presented by the external load connected to a circuit, determining the amount of current drawn and influencing the circuit's voltage and power distribution.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Supply Voltage: 3.3 Volt --> 3.3 Volt No Conversion Required
Zero Bias Threshold Voltage: 1.4 Volt --> 1.4 Volt No Conversion Required
Transconductance of NMOS: 200 Microampere per Square Volt --> 0.0002 Ampere per Square Volt (Check conversion ​here)
Load Resistance: 2 Megohm --> 2000000 Ohm (Check conversion ​here)
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
VOL(RL) = VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VDD/(Kn*RL))) --> 3.3-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000))-sqrt((3.3-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000)))^2-(2*3.3/(0.0002*2000000)))
Evaluating ... ...
VOL(RL) = 0.00434135278423065
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
0.00434135278423065 Volt --> No Conversion Required
0.00434135278423065 0.004341 Volt <-- Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage
(Calculation completed in 00.004 seconds)
You are here -
Home »

## Credits

Created by Priyanka Patel
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of engineering (LDCE), Ahmedabad
Priyanka Patel has created this Calculator and 25+ more calculators!
Dayananda Sagar College Of Engineering (DSCE), Banglore
Santhosh Yadav has verified this Calculator and 50+ more calculators!

## <CMOS Inverters Calculators

Threshold Voltage CMOS
​ Go Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio))
Maximum Input Voltage CMOS
​ Go Maximum Input Voltage CMOS = (2*Output Voltage for Max Input+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)-Supply Voltage+Transconductance Ratio*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/(1+Transconductance Ratio)
Maximum Input Voltage for Symmetric CMOS
​ Go Maximum Input Voltage Symmetric CMOS = (3*Supply Voltage+2*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/8
Noise Margin for High Signal CMOS
​ Go Noise Margin for High Signal = Maximum Output Voltage-Minimum Input Voltage

## Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS Formula

Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))
VOL(RL) = VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VDD/(Kn*RL)))

## In which region Resistive load inverter lies at the time of minimum output voltage?

Resistive load inverter lies in the linear region at the time of minimum output voltage where Vout < Vin - VT0.

## How to Calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?

Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS calculator uses Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))) to calculate the Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage, Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS is the lowest voltage level that the output terminal of a CMOS device can reliably provide when driving a resistive load, ensuring proper signal integrity and meeting specified performance criteria under given operating conditions. Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage is denoted by VOL(RL) symbol.

How to calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS, enter Supply Voltage (VDD), Zero Bias Threshold Voltage (VT0), Transconductance of NMOS (Kn) & Load Resistance (RL) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS calculation can be explained with given input values -> 0.004341 = 3.3-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000))-sqrt((3.3-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000)))^2-(2*3.3/(0.0002*2000000))).

### FAQ

What is Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS is the lowest voltage level that the output terminal of a CMOS device can reliably provide when driving a resistive load, ensuring proper signal integrity and meeting specified performance criteria under given operating conditions and is represented as VOL(RL) = VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((VDD-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VDD/(Kn*RL))) or Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))). Supply voltage refers to the voltage level provided by a power source to an electrical circuit or device, serving as the potential difference for current flow and operation, Zero bias threshold voltage refers to the threshold voltage of a MOSFET when no additional bias voltage is applied to the substrate, typically measured between gate and source, Transconductance of NMOS refers to the ratio of the change in the output drain current to the change in the input gate-source voltage when the drain-source voltage is constant & Load Resistance is the resistance presented by the external load connected to a circuit, determining the amount of current drawn and influencing the circuit's voltage and power distribution.
How to calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS is the lowest voltage level that the output terminal of a CMOS device can reliably provide when driving a resistive load, ensuring proper signal integrity and meeting specified performance criteria under given operating conditions is calculated using Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))). To calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS, you need Supply Voltage (VDD), Zero Bias Threshold Voltage (VT0), Transconductance of NMOS (Kn) & Load Resistance (RL). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Supply Voltage, Zero Bias Threshold Voltage, Transconductance of NMOS & Load Resistance and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
Let Others Know