## Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))
VOL(RL) = Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VCC/(Kn*RL)))
This formula uses 1 Functions, 6 Variables
Functions Used
sqrt - Square root function, sqrt(Number)
Variables Used
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage is defined as the minimum output voltage when the output level is logic "1" in resistive load inverter.
Supply Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - The Supply voltage is the voltage input.
Zero Bias Threshold Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Zero Bias Threshold Voltage is defined as the required gate voltage when source to substrate voltage is zero.
Transconductance of NMOS - (Measured in Ampere per Square Volt) - Transconductance of NMOS in CMOS is defined as the multiplication of mobility of electrons, width to length ratio of NMOS and oxide capacitance.
Load Resistance - (Measured in Ohm) - Load Resistance is defined as an electronic component that limits the amount of current flowing through a circuit.
Supply Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Supply Voltage is the electric potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit provided by an energy source such as a battery or an electrical outlet.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Supply Voltage: 1.55 Volt --> 1.55 Volt No Conversion Required
Zero Bias Threshold Voltage: 1.4 Volt --> 1.4 Volt No Conversion Required
Transconductance of NMOS: 200 Microampere per Square Volt --> 0.0002 Ampere per Square Volt (Check conversion here)
Load Resistance: 2 Megohm --> 2000000 Ohm (Check conversion here)
Supply Voltage: 1.6 Volt --> 1.6 Volt No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
VOL(RL) = Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VCC/(Kn*RL))) --> 1.55-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000))-sqrt((1.55-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000)))^2-(2*1.6/(0.0002*2000000)))
Evaluating ... ...
VOL(RL) = 0.0289838067296437
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
0.0289838067296437 Volt --> No Conversion Required
0.0289838067296437 0.028984 Volt <-- Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage
(Calculation completed in 00.020 seconds)
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Created by Priyanka Patel
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of engineering (LDCE), Ahmedabad
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Dayananda Sagar College Of Engineering (DSCE), Banglore
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## < 16 CMOS Inverters Calculators

Propagation Delay for Low to High Output Transition CMOS
Time for Low to High Transition of Output = (Load Capacitance/(Transconductance of PMOS*(Supply Voltage-abs(Threshold Voltage of PMOS with Body Bias))))*(((2*abs(Threshold Voltage of PMOS with Body Bias))/(Supply Voltage-abs(Threshold Voltage of PMOS with Body Bias)))+ln((4*(Supply Voltage-abs(Threshold Voltage of PMOS with Body Bias))/Supply Voltage)-1))
Propagation Delay for High to Low Output Transition CMOS
Time for High to Low Transition of Output = (Load Capacitance/(Transconductance of NMOS*(Supply Voltage-Threshold Voltage of NMOS with Body Bias)))*((2*Threshold Voltage of NMOS with Body Bias/(Supply Voltage-Threshold Voltage of NMOS with Body Bias))+ln((4*(Supply Voltage-Threshold Voltage of NMOS with Body Bias)/Supply Voltage)-1))
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS
Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))
Threshold Voltage CMOS
Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio))
Maximum Input Voltage CMOS
Maximum Input Voltage CMOS = (2*Output Voltage for Max Input+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)-Supply Voltage+Transconductance Ratio*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/(1+Transconductance Ratio)
Resistive Load Minimum Input Voltage CMOS
Resistive Load Minimum Input Voltage = Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+sqrt((8*Supply Voltage)/(3*Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))
Minimum Input Voltage CMOS
Minimum Input Voltage = (Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)+Transconductance Ratio*(2*Output Voltage+Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias))/(1+Transconductance Ratio)
Load Capacitance = Gate Drain Capacitance of PMOS+Gate Drain Capacitance of NMOS+Drain Bulk Capacitance of PMOS+Drain Bulk Capacitance of NMOS+Internal Capacitance+Gate Capacitance
Resistive Load Maximum Input Voltage CMOS
Resistive Load Maximum Input Voltage CMOS = Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))
Average Propagation Delay CMOS
Average Propagation Delay = (Time for High to Low Transition of Output+Time for Low to High Transition of Output)/2
Average Power Dissipation CMOS
Average Power Dissipation = Load Capacitance*(Supply Voltage)^2*Frequency
Maximum Input Voltage for Symmetric CMOS
Maximum Input Voltage = (3*Supply Voltage+2*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/8
Minimum Input Voltage for Symmetric CMOS
Minimum Input Voltage = (5*Supply Voltage-2*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/8
Oscillation Period Ring Oscillator CMOS
Oscillation Period = 2*Number of Stages Ring Oscillator*Average Propagation Delay
Noise Margin for High Signal CMOS
Noise Margin for High Signal = Maximum Output Voltage-Minimum Input Voltage
Transconductance Ratio CMOS
Transconductance Ratio = Transconductance of NMOS/Transconductance of PMOS

## Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS Formula

Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))
VOL(RL) = Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VCC/(Kn*RL)))

## In which region Resistive load inverter lies at the time of minimum output voltage?

Resistive load inverter lies in the linear region at the time of minimum output voltage where Vout < Vin - VT0.

## How to Calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?

Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS calculator uses Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))) to calculate the Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage, The Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS formula is defined as the minimum output voltage when the output level is logic "1" in resistive load inverter. Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage is denoted by VOL(RL) symbol.

How to calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS, enter Supply Voltage (Vcc), Zero Bias Threshold Voltage (VT0), Transconductance of NMOS (Kn), Load Resistance (RL) & Supply Voltage (VCC) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS calculation can be explained with given input values -> 0.028984 = 1.55-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000))-sqrt((1.55-1.4+(1/(0.0002*2000000)))^2-(2*1.6/(0.0002*2000000))).

### FAQ

What is Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?
The Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS formula is defined as the minimum output voltage when the output level is logic "1" in resistive load inverter and is represented as VOL(RL) = Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL))-sqrt((Vcc-VT0+(1/(Kn*RL)))^2-(2*VCC/(Kn*RL))) or Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))). The Supply voltage is the voltage input, Zero Bias Threshold Voltage is defined as the required gate voltage when source to substrate voltage is zero, Transconductance of NMOS in CMOS is defined as the multiplication of mobility of electrons, width to length ratio of NMOS and oxide capacitance, Load Resistance is defined as an electronic component that limits the amount of current flowing through a circuit & Supply Voltage is the electric potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit provided by an energy source such as a battery or an electrical outlet.
How to calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS?
The Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS formula is defined as the minimum output voltage when the output level is logic "1" in resistive load inverter is calculated using Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage = Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))-sqrt((Supply Voltage-Zero Bias Threshold Voltage+(1/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance)))^2-(2*Supply Voltage/(Transconductance of NMOS*Load Resistance))). To calculate Resistive Load Minimum Output Voltage CMOS, you need Supply Voltage (Vcc), Zero Bias Threshold Voltage (VT0), Transconductance of NMOS (Kn), Load Resistance (RL) & Supply Voltage (VCC). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Supply Voltage, Zero Bias Threshold Voltage, Transconductance of NMOS, Load Resistance & Supply Voltage and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
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