## Threshold Voltage CMOS Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio))
Vth = (VT0,n+sqrt(1/Kr)*(VDD+(VT0,p)))/(1+sqrt(1/Kr))
This formula uses 1 Functions, 5 Variables
Functions Used
sqrt - A square root function is a function that takes a non-negative number as an input and returns the square root of the given input number., sqrt(Number)
Variables Used
Threshold Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Threshold voltage is the minimum input voltage required to switch a semiconductor device, such as a transistor, from its non-conducting to its conducting state, initiating the desired operation.
Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias - (Measured in Volt) - Threshold voltage of NMOS without body bias is the minimum input voltage required to switch an NMOS transistor when no additional bias voltage is applied to the substrate (body).
Transconductance Ratio - Transconductance ratio is the ratio of the transconductance of one device (e.g., transistor) to another, often used to compare or characterize their performance or behavior in circuits.
Supply Voltage - (Measured in Volt) - Supply voltage refers to the voltage level provided by a power source to an electrical circuit or device, serving as the potential difference for current flow and operation.
Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias - (Measured in Volt) - Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias CMOS is defined as the threshold voltage of the PMOS when substrate terminal is at ground (0) voltage.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias: 0.6 Volt --> 0.6 Volt No Conversion Required
Transconductance Ratio: 2.5 --> No Conversion Required
Supply Voltage: 3.3 Volt --> 3.3 Volt No Conversion Required
Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias: -0.7 Volt --> -0.7 Volt No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
Vth = (VT0,n+sqrt(1/Kr)*(VDD+(VT0,p)))/(1+sqrt(1/Kr)) --> (0.6+sqrt(1/2.5)*(3.3+((-0.7))))/(1+sqrt(1/2.5))
Evaluating ... ...
Vth = 1.37485177344559
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
1.37485177344559 Volt --> No Conversion Required
1.37485177344559 1.374852 Volt <-- Threshold Voltage
(Calculation completed in 00.004 seconds)
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## Credits

Created by Priyanka Patel
Lalbhai Dalpatbhai College of engineering (LDCE), Ahmedabad
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Verified by Parminder Singh
Chandigarh University (CU), Punjab
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## <CMOS Inverters Calculators

Threshold Voltage CMOS
​ Go Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio))
Maximum Input Voltage CMOS
​ Go Maximum Input Voltage CMOS = (2*Output Voltage for Max Input+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)-Supply Voltage+Transconductance Ratio*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/(1+Transconductance Ratio)
Maximum Input Voltage for Symmetric CMOS
​ Go Maximum Input Voltage Symmetric CMOS = (3*Supply Voltage+2*Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias)/8
Noise Margin for High Signal CMOS
​ Go Noise Margin for High Signal = Maximum Output Voltage-Minimum Input Voltage

## Threshold Voltage CMOS Formula

Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio))
Vth = (VT0,n+sqrt(1/Kr)*(VDD+(VT0,p)))/(1+sqrt(1/Kr))

## What are the mode of PMOS and NMOS while calculating the threshold voltage for CMOS?

Both The PMOS and NMOS are in the saturation region while calculating the threshold voltage for CMOS.

## How to Calculate Threshold Voltage CMOS?

Threshold Voltage CMOS calculator uses Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)) to calculate the Threshold Voltage, Threshold Voltage CMOS refers to the minimum voltage applied to the gate terminal of a MOSFET required to establish a conducting channel between the source and drain terminals. It determines the device's on/off state and influences its switching characteristics and overall performance in digital circuits. Threshold Voltage is denoted by Vth symbol.

How to calculate Threshold Voltage CMOS using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Threshold Voltage CMOS, enter Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias (VT0,n), Transconductance Ratio (Kr), Supply Voltage (VDD) & Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias (VT0,p) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Threshold Voltage CMOS calculation can be explained with given input values -> 1.374852 = (0.6+sqrt(1/2.5)*(3.3+((-0.7))))/(1+sqrt(1/2.5)).

### FAQ

What is Threshold Voltage CMOS?
Threshold Voltage CMOS refers to the minimum voltage applied to the gate terminal of a MOSFET required to establish a conducting channel between the source and drain terminals. It determines the device's on/off state and influences its switching characteristics and overall performance in digital circuits and is represented as Vth = (VT0,n+sqrt(1/Kr)*(VDD+(VT0,p)))/(1+sqrt(1/Kr)) or Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)). Threshold voltage of NMOS without body bias is the minimum input voltage required to switch an NMOS transistor when no additional bias voltage is applied to the substrate (body), Transconductance ratio is the ratio of the transconductance of one device (e.g., transistor) to another, often used to compare or characterize their performance or behavior in circuits, Supply voltage refers to the voltage level provided by a power source to an electrical circuit or device, serving as the potential difference for current flow and operation & Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias CMOS is defined as the threshold voltage of the PMOS when substrate terminal is at ground (0) voltage.
How to calculate Threshold Voltage CMOS?
Threshold Voltage CMOS refers to the minimum voltage applied to the gate terminal of a MOSFET required to establish a conducting channel between the source and drain terminals. It determines the device's on/off state and influences its switching characteristics and overall performance in digital circuits is calculated using Threshold Voltage = (Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)*(Supply Voltage+(Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias)))/(1+sqrt(1/Transconductance Ratio)). To calculate Threshold Voltage CMOS, you need Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias (VT0,n), Transconductance Ratio (Kr), Supply Voltage (VDD) & Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias (VT0,p). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Threshold Voltage of NMOS Without Body Bias, Transconductance Ratio, Supply Voltage & Threshold Voltage of PMOS Without Body Bias and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
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