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## Credits

Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology (BTKIT), Dwarahat
Shobhit Dimri has created this Calculator and 500+ more calculators!
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College (VGEC), Ahmedabad
Urvi Rathod has verified this Calculator and 1000+ more calculators!

## Built-in potential Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
built_in_potential = Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration*Donor concentration/Intrinsic Electron Concentration^2)
ψo = VT*log10(Na*Nd/ni^2)
This formula uses 2 Functions, 4 Variables
Functions Used
log10 - Common logarithm function (base 10), log10(Number)
log - Logarithm function, log(Number, Base)
Variables Used
Threshold voltage - Threshold voltage of transistor is the minimum gate to source voltage that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals. It is an important factor to maintain power efficiency. (Measured in Volt)
Acceptor concentration - Acceptor concentration is the concentration of holes in acceptor state. (Measured in 1 per Cubic Centimeter)
Donor concentration - Donor concentration is the concentration of electrons in the donor state. (Measured in 1 per Cubic Centimeter)
Intrinsic Electron Concentration- Intrinsic Electron Concentration
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Threshold voltage: 50 Volt --> 50 Volt No Conversion Required
Acceptor concentration: 1000 1 per Cubic Centimeter --> 1000000000 1 per Cubic Meter (Check conversion here)
Donor concentration: 1000 1 per Cubic Centimeter --> 1000000000 1 per Cubic Meter (Check conversion here)
Intrinsic Electron Concentration: 2 --> No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
ψo = VT*log10(Na*Nd/ni^2) --> 50*log10(1000000000*1000000000/2^2)
Evaluating ... ...
ψo = 869.897000433602
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
869.897000433602 Volt --> No Conversion Required
FINAL ANSWER
869.897000433602 Volt <-- Built-in potential
(Calculation completed in 00.017 seconds)

## < 10+ CMOS-VLSI Design Calculators

Drain Voltage
drain_voltage = sqrt(dynamic power/frequency*Capacitance) Go
Gate to Channel Voltage
gate_to_channel_voltage = (Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)+Threshold voltage Go
Threshold Voltage
threshold_voltage = Gate to Channel Voltage-(Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance) Go
Gate Capacitance
channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage) Go
Channel Charge
channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage) Go
Capacitor dynamic power
dynamic_power = Drain Voltage^2*frequency*Capacitance Go
Potential gate to Collector
potential_gate_to_collector = (Potential Gate to Source+Potential Gate to Drain)/2 Go
Potential Gate to Drain
potential_gate_to_drain = 2*potential gate to collector-Potential Gate to Source Go
Static Current
static_current = Static power/Drain Voltage Go
Static Power Dissipation
static_power = static current*Drain Voltage Go

### Built-in potential Formula

built_in_potential = Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration*Donor concentration/Intrinsic Electron Concentration^2)
ψo = VT*log10(Na*Nd/ni^2)

## Explain what is a sequential circuit?

A sequential circuit is a circuit which is created by logic gates such that the required logic at the output depends not only on the current input logic conditions, but also on the sequences past inputs and outputs.

## How to Calculate Built-in potential?

Built-in potential calculator uses built_in_potential = Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration*Donor concentration/Intrinsic Electron Concentration^2) to calculate the Built-in potential, The Built-in potential formula is defined as the built-in potential in a semiconductor equals the potential across the depletion region in thermal equilibrium. ... It also equals the sum of the bulk potentials of each region, since the bulk potential quantifies the distance between the fermi energy and the intrinsic energy. Built-in potential and is denoted by ψo symbol.

How to calculate Built-in potential using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Built-in potential, enter Threshold voltage (VT), Acceptor concentration (Na), Donor concentration (Nd) and Intrinsic Electron Concentration (ni) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Built-in potential calculation can be explained with given input values -> 869.897 = 50*log10(1000000000*1000000000/2^2).

### FAQ

What is Built-in potential?
The Built-in potential formula is defined as the built-in potential in a semiconductor equals the potential across the depletion region in thermal equilibrium. ... It also equals the sum of the bulk potentials of each region, since the bulk potential quantifies the distance between the fermi energy and the intrinsic energy and is represented as ψo = VT*log10(Na*Nd/ni^2) or built_in_potential = Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration*Donor concentration/Intrinsic Electron Concentration^2). Threshold voltage of transistor is the minimum gate to source voltage that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals. It is an important factor to maintain power efficiency, Acceptor concentration is the concentration of holes in acceptor state, Donor concentration is the concentration of electrons in the donor state and Intrinsic Electron Concentration.
How to calculate Built-in potential?
The Built-in potential formula is defined as the built-in potential in a semiconductor equals the potential across the depletion region in thermal equilibrium. ... It also equals the sum of the bulk potentials of each region, since the bulk potential quantifies the distance between the fermi energy and the intrinsic energy is calculated using built_in_potential = Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration*Donor concentration/Intrinsic Electron Concentration^2). To calculate Built-in potential, you need Threshold voltage (VT), Acceptor concentration (Na), Donor concentration (Nd) and Intrinsic Electron Concentration (ni). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Threshold voltage, Acceptor concentration, Donor concentration and Intrinsic Electron Concentration and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
How many ways are there to calculate Built-in potential?
In this formula, Built-in potential uses Threshold voltage, Acceptor concentration, Donor concentration and Intrinsic Electron Concentration. We can use 10 other way(s) to calculate the same, which is/are as follows -
• dynamic_power = Drain Voltage^2*frequency*Capacitance
• drain_voltage = sqrt(dynamic power/frequency*Capacitance)
• static_power = static current*Drain Voltage
• static_current = Static power/Drain Voltage
• channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage)
• channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage)
• gate_to_channel_voltage = (Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)+Threshold voltage
• threshold_voltage = Gate to Channel Voltage-(Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)
• potential_gate_to_collector = (Potential Gate to Source+Potential Gate to Drain)/2
• potential_gate_to_drain = 2*potential gate to collector-Potential Gate to Source
Where is the Built-in potential calculator used?
Among many, Built-in potential calculator is widely used in real life applications like {FormulaUses}. Here are few more real life examples -
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