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## Credits

University Institute of Technology RGPV (UIT - RGPV), Bhopal
Rajat Vishwakarma has created this Calculator and 300+ more calculators!
Shri Madhwa Vadiraja Institute of Technology and Management (SMVITM), Udupi
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## Hardness of work material Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
brinell_hardness = Density/(12*(Material removal rate/(Empirical constant*No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time*Mean diameter of abrasive particles^3*Velocity^(3/2)))^(4/3))
HB = ρ/(12*(Zw/(A0*N*d^3*v^(3/2)))^(4/3))
This formula uses 6 Variables
Variables Used
Density - The density of a material shows the denseness of that material in a specific given area. This is taken as mass per unit volume of a given object. (Measured in Kilogram per Meter³)
Material removal rate - Material removal rate (MRR) is the amount of material removed per time unit (usually per minute) when performing machining operations such as using a lathe or milling machine. (Measured in Meter³ per Second)
Empirical constant- The Empirical constant is a self determined constant whose value is accessible from table of such constants. This constant is used to calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration.
No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time- No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time
Mean diameter of abrasive particles - Mean diameter of abrasive particles is the mean calculated from sampling method. (Measured in Millimeter)
Velocity - Velocity, in physics, is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction), and is the time rate of change of position (of an object). (Measured in Meter per Second)
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Density: 997 Kilogram per Meter³ --> 997 Kilogram per Meter³ No Conversion Required
Material removal rate: 1 Meter³ per Second --> 1 Meter³ per Second No Conversion Required
Empirical constant: 100 --> No Conversion Required
No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time: 5 --> No Conversion Required
Mean diameter of abrasive particles: 1 Millimeter --> 0.001 Meter (Check conversion here)
Velocity: 60 Meter per Second --> 60 Meter per Second No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
HB = ρ/(12*(Zw/(A0*N*d^3*v^(3/2)))^(4/3)) --> 997/(12*(1/(100*5*0.001^3*60^(3/2)))^(4/3))
Evaluating ... ...
HB = 0.00118697913660922
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
0.00118697913660922 Pascal -->1.21038187006705E-10 Kilogram-Force per Square Millimeter (Check conversion here)
FINAL ANSWER
1.21038187006705E-10 Kilogram-Force per Square Millimeter <-- Brinell Hardness
(Calculation completed in 00.047 seconds)

## < 11 Other formulas that you can solve using the same Inputs

Stanton Number (using basic fluid properties)
stanton_number = External convection heat transfer coefficient/(Specific Heat Capacity*Fluid Velocity*Density) Go
Reynolds Number for Non-Circular Tubes
reynolds_number = Density*Fluid Velocity*Characteristic Length/Dynamic viscosity Go
Reynolds Number for Circular Tubes
reynolds_number = Density*Fluid Velocity*Diameter/Dynamic viscosity Go
Archimedes Principle
archimedes_principle = Density*Acceleration Due To Gravity*Velocity Go
Pressure when density and height are given
pressure = Density*Acceleration Due To Gravity*Height Go
Molar Volume
molar_volume = (Atomic Weight*Molar Mass)/Density Go
Centripetal Force
centripetal_force = (Mass*(Velocity)^2)/Radius Go
Air Resistance Force
air_resistance = Air Constant*Velocity^2 Go
Number of atomic sites
number_atomic_sites = Density/Atomic Mass Go
Relative Density
relative_density = Density/Water Density Go
Kinetic Energy
kinetic_energy = (Mass*Velocity^2)/2 Go

## < 1 Other formulas that calculate the same Output

Brinell hardness
brinell_hardness = 2*Indentation Load/(pi*Diameter of the indenter*(Diameter of the indenter-sqrt(Diameter of the indenter^2-Diameter of the indentation^2))) Go

### Hardness of work material Formula

brinell_hardness = Density/(12*(Material removal rate/(Empirical constant*No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time*Mean diameter of abrasive particles^3*Velocity^(3/2)))^(4/3))
HB = ρ/(12*(Zw/(A0*N*d^3*v^(3/2)))^(4/3))

## What is Abrasive Jet Machining ?

Abrasive Jet Machining is a process that uses a very high speed (supersonic about 2.5 Mach number) water jet mixed with abrasives to cut any type of material without, in any way, affecting the work material or the environment. The AJM machines aim a highly focused, supersonic stream of water at the material such that it can cut composites smoothly by eroding them without generating any heat. Thus the AJM process eliminates all the thermal and mechanical distortion caused by conventional cutting methods. Also the water jet nozzle can be directed at any angle to the material thereby allowing for angled cuts. For cutting soft materials such as textiles and food stuffs, pure water without any abrasives is used.

## How to Calculate Hardness of work material?

Hardness of work material calculator uses brinell_hardness = Density/(12*(Material removal rate/(Empirical constant*No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time*Mean diameter of abrasive particles^3*Velocity^(3/2)))^(4/3)) to calculate the Brinell Hardness, The Hardness of work material formula is defined as the hardness of the surface of workpiece on which AJM is being performed. Brinell Hardness and is denoted by HB symbol.

How to calculate Hardness of work material using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Hardness of work material, enter Density (ρ), Material removal rate (Zw), Empirical constant (A0), No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time (N), Mean diameter of abrasive particles (d) and Velocity (v) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Hardness of work material calculation can be explained with given input values -> 1.210E-10 = 997/(12*(1/(100*5*0.001^3*60^(3/2)))^(4/3)).

### FAQ

What is Hardness of work material?
The Hardness of work material formula is defined as the hardness of the surface of workpiece on which AJM is being performed and is represented as HB = ρ/(12*(Zw/(A0*N*d^3*v^(3/2)))^(4/3)) or brinell_hardness = Density/(12*(Material removal rate/(Empirical constant*No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time*Mean diameter of abrasive particles^3*Velocity^(3/2)))^(4/3)). The density of a material shows the denseness of that material in a specific given area. This is taken as mass per unit volume of a given object, Material removal rate (MRR) is the amount of material removed per time unit (usually per minute) when performing machining operations such as using a lathe or milling machine, The Empirical constant is a self determined constant whose value is accessible from table of such constants. This constant is used to calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration, No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time, Mean diameter of abrasive particles is the mean calculated from sampling method and Velocity, in physics, is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction), and is the time rate of change of position (of an object).
How to calculate Hardness of work material?
The Hardness of work material formula is defined as the hardness of the surface of workpiece on which AJM is being performed is calculated using brinell_hardness = Density/(12*(Material removal rate/(Empirical constant*No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time*Mean diameter of abrasive particles^3*Velocity^(3/2)))^(4/3)). To calculate Hardness of work material, you need Density (ρ), Material removal rate (Zw), Empirical constant (A0), No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time (N), Mean diameter of abrasive particles (d) and Velocity (v). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Density, Material removal rate, Empirical constant, No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time, Mean diameter of abrasive particles and Velocity and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
How many ways are there to calculate Brinell Hardness?
In this formula, Brinell Hardness uses Density, Material removal rate, Empirical constant, No. of abrasive particles impacting per unit time, Mean diameter of abrasive particles and Velocity. We can use 1 other way(s) to calculate the same, which is/are as follows -
• brinell_hardness = 2*Indentation Load/(pi*Diameter of the indenter*(Diameter of the indenter-sqrt(Diameter of the indenter^2-Diameter of the indentation^2))) Let Others Know
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