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## Credits

Bipin Tripathi Kumaon Institute of Technology (BTKIT), Dwarahat
Shobhit Dimri has created this Calculator and 500+ more calculators!
Vishwakarma Government Engineering College (VGEC), Ahmedabad
Urvi Rathod has verified this Calculator and 1000+ more calculators!

## Surface potential Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
surface_potential = 2*Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration/Intrinsic Concentration)
Φs = 2*VT*log10(Na/ni)
This formula uses 2 Functions, 3 Variables
Functions Used
log10 - Common logarithm function (base 10), log10(Number)
log - Logarithm function, log(Number, Base)
Variables Used
Threshold voltage - Threshold voltage of transistor is the minimum gate to source voltage that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals. It is an important factor to maintain power efficiency. (Measured in Volt)
Acceptor concentration - Acceptor concentration is the concentration of holes in acceptor state. (Measured in 1 per Cubic Centimeter)
Intrinsic Concentration- Intrinsic Concentration is the number of electrons in the conduction band or the number of holes in the valence band in intrinsic material.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Threshold voltage: 50 Volt --> 50 Volt No Conversion Required
Acceptor concentration: 1000 1 per Cubic Centimeter --> 1000000000 1 per Cubic Meter (Check conversion here)
Intrinsic Concentration: 10 --> No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
Φs = 2*VT*log10(Na/ni) --> 2*50*log10(1000000000/10)
Evaluating ... ...
Φs = 800
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
800 Volt --> No Conversion Required
800 Volt <-- surface potential
(Calculation completed in 00.016 seconds)

## < 10+ CMOS-VLSI Design Calculators

Drain Voltage
drain_voltage = sqrt(dynamic power/frequency*Capacitance) Go
Gate to Channel Voltage
gate_to_channel_voltage = (Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)+Threshold voltage Go
Threshold Voltage
threshold_voltage = Gate to Channel Voltage-(Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance) Go
Gate Capacitance
channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage) Go
Channel Charge
channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage) Go
Capacitor dynamic power
dynamic_power = Drain Voltage^2*frequency*Capacitance Go
Potential gate to Collector
potential_gate_to_collector = (Potential Gate to Source+Potential Gate to Drain)/2 Go
Potential Gate to Drain
potential_gate_to_drain = 2*potential gate to collector-Potential Gate to Source Go
Static Current
static_current = Static power/Drain Voltage Go
Static Power Dissipation
static_power = static current*Drain Voltage Go

### Surface potential Formula

surface_potential = 2*Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration/Intrinsic Concentration)
Φs = 2*VT*log10(Na/ni)

## Explain why is the number of gate inputs to CMOS gates usually limited to four?

Higher the number of stacks, slower the gate will be. In NOR and NAND gates the number of gates present in the stack is usually alike as the number of inputs plus one. So input are restricted to four.

## How to Calculate Surface potential?

Surface potential calculator uses surface_potential = 2*Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration/Intrinsic Concentration) to calculate the surface potential, The Surface potential formula is defined as is a key parameter in evaluating the DC property of thin-film transistors.The externally applied potential is equal to the voltage drop across the oxide layer plus the voltage drop across the semiconductor. surface potential and is denoted by Φs symbol.

How to calculate Surface potential using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Surface potential, enter Threshold voltage (VT), Acceptor concentration (Na) and Intrinsic Concentration (ni) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Surface potential calculation can be explained with given input values -> 800 = 2*50*log10(1000000000/10).

### FAQ

What is Surface potential?
The Surface potential formula is defined as is a key parameter in evaluating the DC property of thin-film transistors.The externally applied potential is equal to the voltage drop across the oxide layer plus the voltage drop across the semiconductor and is represented as Φs = 2*VT*log10(Na/ni) or surface_potential = 2*Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration/Intrinsic Concentration). Threshold voltage of transistor is the minimum gate to source voltage that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals. It is an important factor to maintain power efficiency, Acceptor concentration is the concentration of holes in acceptor state and Intrinsic Concentration is the number of electrons in the conduction band or the number of holes in the valence band in intrinsic material.
How to calculate Surface potential?
The Surface potential formula is defined as is a key parameter in evaluating the DC property of thin-film transistors.The externally applied potential is equal to the voltage drop across the oxide layer plus the voltage drop across the semiconductor is calculated using surface_potential = 2*Threshold voltage*log10(Acceptor concentration/Intrinsic Concentration). To calculate Surface potential, you need Threshold voltage (VT), Acceptor concentration (Na) and Intrinsic Concentration (ni). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Threshold voltage, Acceptor concentration and Intrinsic Concentration and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
How many ways are there to calculate surface potential?
In this formula, surface potential uses Threshold voltage, Acceptor concentration and Intrinsic Concentration. We can use 10 other way(s) to calculate the same, which is/are as follows -
• dynamic_power = Drain Voltage^2*frequency*Capacitance
• drain_voltage = sqrt(dynamic power/frequency*Capacitance)
• static_power = static current*Drain Voltage
• static_current = Static power/Drain Voltage
• channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage)
• channel_charge = Gate Capacitance*(Gate to Channel Voltage-Threshold voltage)
• gate_to_channel_voltage = (Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)+Threshold voltage
• threshold_voltage = Gate to Channel Voltage-(Channel Charge/Gate Capacitance)
• potential_gate_to_collector = (Potential Gate to Source+Potential Gate to Drain)/2
• potential_gate_to_drain = 2*potential gate to collector-Potential Gate to Source
Where is the Surface potential calculator used?
Among many, Surface potential calculator is widely used in real life applications like {FormulaUses}. Here are few more real life examples -
{FormulaExamplesList}
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