## Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))))
θ = acos((((h1*h2)/(alattice^2))+((l1*l2)/(c^2))+((k1*k2)/(b^2)))/sqrt((((h1^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))*((l1^2)/(c^2)))*(((h2^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))+((l1^2)/(c^2)))))
This formula uses 3 Functions, 10 Variables
Functions Used
cos - Cosine of an angle is the ratio of the side adjacent to the angle to the hypotenuse of the triangle., cos(Angle)
acos - The inverse cosine function, is the inverse function of the cosine function. It is the function that takes a ratio as an input and returns the angle whose cosine is equal to that ratio., acos(Number)
sqrt - A square root function is a function that takes a non-negative number as an input and returns the square root of the given input number., sqrt(Number)
Variables Used
Interplanar Angle - (Measured in Radian) - The Interplanar Angle is the angle, f between two planes, (h1, k1, l1) and (h2, k2, l2).
Miller Index along plane 1 - The Miller Index along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the x-direction in plane 1.
Miller Index h along plane 2 - The Miller Index h along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the x-direction in plane 2.
Lattice Constant a - (Measured in Meter) - The Lattice Constant a refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along x-axis.
Miller Index l along plane 1 - The Miller Index l along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the z-direction in plane 1.
Miller Index l along plane 2 - The Miller Index l along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the z-direction in plane 2.
Lattice Constant c - (Measured in Meter) - The Lattice Constant c refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along z-axis.
Miller Index k along Plane 1 - The Miller Index k along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the y-direction in plane 1.
Miller Index k along Plane 2 - The Miller Index k along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the y-direction in plane 2.
Lattice Constant b - (Measured in Meter) - The Lattice Constant b refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along y-axis.
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Miller Index along plane 1: 5 --> No Conversion Required
Miller Index h along plane 2: 8 --> No Conversion Required
Lattice Constant a: 14 Angstrom --> 1.4E-09 Meter (Check conversion here)
Miller Index l along plane 1: 16 --> No Conversion Required
Miller Index l along plane 2: 25 --> No Conversion Required
Lattice Constant c: 15 Angstrom --> 1.5E-09 Meter (Check conversion here)
Miller Index k along Plane 1: 3 --> No Conversion Required
Miller Index k along Plane 2: 6 --> No Conversion Required
Lattice Constant b: 12 Angstrom --> 1.2E-09 Meter (Check conversion here)
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
θ = acos((((h1*h2)/(alattice^2))+((l1*l2)/(c^2))+((k1*k2)/(b^2)))/sqrt((((h1^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))*((l1^2)/(c^2)))*(((h2^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))+((l1^2)/(c^2))))) --> acos((((5*8)/(1.4E-09^2))+((16*25)/(1.5E-09^2))+((3*6)/(1.2E-09^2)))/sqrt((((5^2)/(1.4E-09^2))+((3^2)/(1.2E-09^2))*((16^2)/(1.5E-09^2)))*(((8^2)/(1.4E-09^2))+((3^2)/(1.2E-09^2))+((16^2)/(1.5E-09^2)))))
Evaluating ... ...
θ = 1.57079632615549
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
1.57079632615549 Radian -->89.9999999633819 Degree (Check conversion here)
89.9999999633819 90 Degree <-- Interplanar Angle
(Calculation completed in 00.020 seconds)
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University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa (UH Manoa), Hawaii, USA
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## < 10+ Inter-planar distance and inter-planar angle Calculators

Interplanar Distance in Triclinic Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/((((Lattice Constant b^2)*(Lattice Constant c^2)*((sin(Lattice parameter alpha))^2)*(Miller Index along x-axis^2))+((Lattice Constant a^2)*(Lattice Constant c^2)*((sin(Lattice Parameter Beta))^2)*(Miller Index along y-axis^2))+((Lattice Constant a^2)*(Lattice Constant b^2)*((sin(Lattice Parameter gamma))^2)*(Miller Index along z-axis^2))+(2*Lattice Constant a*Lattice Constant b*(Lattice Constant c^2)*((cos(Lattice parameter alpha)*cos(Lattice Parameter Beta))-cos(Lattice Parameter gamma))*Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along y-axis)+(2*Lattice Constant b*Lattice Constant c*(Lattice Constant a^2)*((cos(Lattice Parameter gamma)*cos(Lattice Parameter Beta))-cos(Lattice parameter alpha))*Miller Index along z-axis*Miller Index along y-axis)+(2*Lattice Constant a*Lattice Constant c*(Lattice Constant b^2)*((cos(Lattice parameter alpha)*cos(Lattice Parameter gamma))-cos(Lattice Parameter Beta))*Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along z-axis))/(Volume of Unit Cell^2)))
Interplanar Angle for Hexagonal System
Interplanar Angle = acos(((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(0.5*((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(Miller Index h along plane 2*Miller Index k along Plane 1)))+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2))/(sqrt(((Miller Index along plane 1^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)+(Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 1)+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*(Miller Index l along plane 1^2)))*((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 2^2)+(Miller Index h along plane 2*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*(Miller Index l along plane 2^2))))))
Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System
Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))))
Interplanar Distance in Rhombohedral Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/(((((Miller Index along x-axis^2)+(Miller Index along y-axis^2)+(Miller Index along z-axis^2))*(sin(Lattice parameter alpha)^2))+(((Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along y-axis)+(Miller Index along y-axis*Miller Index along z-axis)+(Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along z-axis))*2*(cos(Lattice parameter alpha)^2))-cos(Lattice parameter alpha))/(Lattice Constant a^2*(1-(3*(cos(Lattice parameter alpha)^2))+(2*(cos(Lattice parameter alpha)^3))))))
Interplanar Distance in Monoclinic Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/((((Miller Index along x-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+(((Miller Index along y-axis^2)*(sin(Lattice Parameter Beta)^2))/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index along z-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))-(2*Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along z-axis*cos(Lattice Parameter Beta)/(Lattice Constant a*Lattice Constant c)))/((sin(Lattice Parameter Beta))^2)))
Interplanar Angle for Simple Cubic System
Interplanar Angle = acos(((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2))/(sqrt((Miller Index along plane 1^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)+(Miller Index l along plane 1^2))*sqrt((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 2^2)+(Miller Index l along plane 2^2))))
Interplanar Distance in Hexagonal Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/((((4/3)*((Miller Index along x-axis^2)+(Miller Index along x-axis*Miller Index along y-axis)+(Miller Index along y-axis^2)))/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index along z-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))
Interplanar Distance in Orthorhombic Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/(((Miller Index along x-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index along y-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index along z-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))
Interplanar Distance in Tetragonal Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = sqrt(1/((((Miller Index along x-axis^2)+(Miller Index along y-axis^2))/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index along z-axis^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))
Interplanar Distance in Cubic Crystal Lattice
Interplanar Spacing = Edge Length/sqrt((Miller Index along x-axis^2)+(Miller Index along y-axis^2)+(Miller Index along z-axis^2))

## Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System Formula

Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))))
θ = acos((((h1*h2)/(alattice^2))+((l1*l2)/(c^2))+((k1*k2)/(b^2)))/sqrt((((h1^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))*((l1^2)/(c^2)))*(((h2^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))+((l1^2)/(c^2)))))

## What are Bravais Lattices?

Bravais Lattice refers to the 14 different 3-dimensional configurations into which atoms can be arranged in crystals. The smallest group of symmetrically aligned atoms which can be repeated in an array to make up the entire crystal is called a unit cell. There are several ways to describe a lattice. The most fundamental description is known as the Bravais lattice. In words, a Bravais lattice is an array of discrete points with an arrangement and orientation that look exactly the same from any of the discrete points, that is the lattice points are indistinguishable from one another. Out of 14 types of Bravais lattices some 7 types of Bravais lattices in three-dimensional space are listed in this subsection. Note that the letters a, b, and c have been used to denote the dimensions of the unit cells whereas the letters 𝛂, 𝞫, and 𝝲 denote the corresponding angles in the unit cells.

## How to Calculate Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System?

Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System calculator uses Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))) to calculate the Interplanar Angle, The Interplanar angle for Orthorhombic system formula is defined as the angle between two planes, (h1, k1, l1) and (h2, k2, l2) in a Orthorhombic system. Interplanar Angle is denoted by θ symbol.

How to calculate Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System, enter Miller Index along plane 1 (h1), Miller Index h along plane 2 (h2), Lattice Constant a (alattice), Miller Index l along plane 1 (l1), Miller Index l along plane 2 (l2), Lattice Constant c (c), Miller Index k along Plane 1 (k1), Miller Index k along Plane 2 (k2) & Lattice Constant b (b) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System calculation can be explained with given input values -> 5156.62 = acos((((5*8)/(1.4E-09^2))+((16*25)/(1.5E-09^2))+((3*6)/(1.2E-09^2)))/sqrt((((5^2)/(1.4E-09^2))+((3^2)/(1.2E-09^2))*((16^2)/(1.5E-09^2)))*(((8^2)/(1.4E-09^2))+((3^2)/(1.2E-09^2))+((16^2)/(1.5E-09^2))))).

### FAQ

What is Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System?
The Interplanar angle for Orthorhombic system formula is defined as the angle between two planes, (h1, k1, l1) and (h2, k2, l2) in a Orthorhombic system and is represented as θ = acos((((h1*h2)/(alattice^2))+((l1*l2)/(c^2))+((k1*k2)/(b^2)))/sqrt((((h1^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))*((l1^2)/(c^2)))*(((h2^2)/(alattice^2))+((k1^2)/(b^2))+((l1^2)/(c^2))))) or Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))). The Miller Index along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the x-direction in plane 1, The Miller Index h along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the x-direction in plane 2, The Lattice Constant a refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along x-axis, The Miller Index l along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the z-direction in plane 1, The Miller Index l along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the z-direction in plane 2, The Lattice Constant c refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along z-axis, The Miller Index k along plane 1 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the y-direction in plane 1, The Miller Index k along plane 2 form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices along the y-direction in plane 2 & The Lattice Constant b refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice along y-axis.
How to calculate Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System?
The Interplanar angle for Orthorhombic system formula is defined as the angle between two planes, (h1, k1, l1) and (h2, k2, l2) in a Orthorhombic system is calculated using Interplanar Angle = acos((((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)/(Lattice Constant b^2)))/sqrt((((Miller Index along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))*((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2)))*(((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)/(Lattice Constant a^2))+((Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant b^2))+((Miller Index l along plane 1^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))))). To calculate Interplanar Angle for Orthorhombic System, you need Miller Index along plane 1 (h1), Miller Index h along plane 2 (h2), Lattice Constant a (alattice), Miller Index l along plane 1 (l1), Miller Index l along plane 2 (l2), Lattice Constant c (c), Miller Index k along Plane 1 (k1), Miller Index k along Plane 2 (k2) & Lattice Constant b (b). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Miller Index along plane 1, Miller Index h along plane 2, Lattice Constant a, Miller Index l along plane 1, Miller Index l along plane 2, Lattice Constant c, Miller Index k along Plane 1, Miller Index k along Plane 2 & Lattice Constant b and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
How many ways are there to calculate Interplanar Angle?
In this formula, Interplanar Angle uses Miller Index along plane 1, Miller Index h along plane 2, Lattice Constant a, Miller Index l along plane 1, Miller Index l along plane 2, Lattice Constant c, Miller Index k along Plane 1, Miller Index k along Plane 2 & Lattice Constant b. We can use 2 other way(s) to calculate the same, which is/are as follows -
• Interplanar Angle = acos(((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2))/(sqrt((Miller Index along plane 1^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)+(Miller Index l along plane 1^2))*sqrt((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 2^2)+(Miller Index l along plane 2^2))))
• Interplanar Angle = acos(((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index h along plane 2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(0.5*((Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+(Miller Index h along plane 2*Miller Index k along Plane 1)))+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*Miller Index l along plane 1*Miller Index l along plane 2))/(sqrt(((Miller Index along plane 1^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 1^2)+(Miller Index along plane 1*Miller Index k along Plane 1)+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*(Miller Index l along plane 1^2)))*((Miller Index h along plane 2^2)+(Miller Index k along Plane 2^2)+(Miller Index h along plane 2*Miller Index k along Plane 2)+((3/4)*((Lattice Constant a^2)/(Lattice Constant c^2))*(Miller Index l along plane 2^2))))))
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