## Credits

Sri sivasubramaniyanadar college of engineering (ssn college of engineering), Chennai
Prasana Kannan has created this Calculator and 25+ more calculators!
Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Technology (MGIT), Hyderabad
Kaki Varun Krishna has verified this Calculator and 10+ more calculators!

## Maximum Lift over Drag Solution

STEP 0: Pre-Calculation Summary
Formula Used
Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Landing Mass Fraction* (((Aspect Ratio of a wing)/ (Aircraft wetted area/Reference Area))^(0.5))
L/Dmax = KLD* (((AR)/ (Swet/S))^(0.5))
This formula uses 4 Variables
Variables Used
Landing Mass Fraction- Landing Mass Fraction is a constant that depends on the various different aircraft types.
Aspect Ratio of a wing- The Aspect Ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of its span to its mean chord.
Aircraft wetted area - The aircraft wetted area is the surface area that interacts with the working fluid or gas. (Measured in Square Meter)
Reference Area - The Reference Area is arbitrarily an area that is characteristic of the object being considered. For an aircraft wing, the wing's planform area is called the reference wing area or simply wing area. (Measured in Square Meter)
STEP 1: Convert Input(s) to Base Unit
Landing Mass Fraction: 14 --> No Conversion Required
Aspect Ratio of a wing: 4 --> No Conversion Required
Aircraft wetted area: 10 Square Meter --> 10 Square Meter No Conversion Required
Reference Area: 5 Square Meter --> 5 Square Meter No Conversion Required
STEP 2: Evaluate Formula
Substituting Input Values in Formula
L/Dmax = KLD* (((AR)/ (Swet/S))^(0.5)) --> 14* (((4)/ (10/5))^(0.5))
Evaluating ... ...
L/Dmax = 19.7989898732233
STEP 3: Convert Result to Output's Unit
19.7989898732233 --> No Conversion Required
19.7989898732233 <-- Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft
(Calculation completed in 00.000 seconds)

## < 10+ Aircraft Preliminary Weight Built Up Calculators

Optimum Range for Jet Aircraft in Cruising Phase
Range of aircraft = ((Velocity at maximum lift to drag ratio*Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft)/Specific Fuel Consumption)*ln(Weight of aircraft at beginning of Cruise phase/Weight of aircraft at end of Cruise phase) Go
Optimum Range for Prop-Driven Aircraft in Cruising Phase
Range of aircraft = ((Propeller efficiency*Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft)/Specific Fuel Consumption)*ln(Weight of aircraft at beginning of Cruise phase/Weight of aircraft at end of Cruise phase) Go
Cruise Weight Fraction for Jet Aircraft
Cruise Weight Fraction = exp((Range of aircraft*Specific Fuel Consumption*(-1))/(0.866*1.32*Velocity at maximum lift to drag ratio*Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft)) Go
Cruise Weight Fraction for Prop-Driven Aircraft
Cruise Weight Fraction = exp((Range of aircraft*(-1)*Specific Fuel Consumption)/(Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft*Propeller efficiency)) Go
Preliminary Take Off Weight Built-up for manned aircraft
Desired Takeoff Weight = Payload Carried+Operating Empty Weight+Fuel Weight to be Carried+Crew Weight Go
Payload Weight in terms of Takeoff Weight
Payload Carried = Desired Takeoff Weight-Operating Empty Weight-Crew Weight-Fuel Weight to be Carried Go
Crew Weight in terms of Takeoff Weight
Crew Weight = Desired Takeoff Weight-Payload Carried-Fuel Weight to be Carried-Operating Empty Weight Go
Preliminary Take off Weight Built-up for manned aircraft in terms of fuel and empty weight fraction
Desired Takeoff Weight = (Payload Carried+Crew Weight)/(1-Fuel Fraction-Empty Weight Fraction) Go
Empty Weight Fraction
Empty Weight Fraction = Operating Empty Weight/Desired Takeoff Weight Go
Fuel Fraction
Fuel Fraction = Fuel Weight to be Carried/Desired Takeoff Weight Go

### Maximum Lift over Drag Formula

Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Landing Mass Fraction* (((Aspect Ratio of a wing)/ (Aircraft wetted area/Reference Area))^(0.5))
L/Dmax = KLD* (((AR)/ (Swet/S))^(0.5))

## What is drag and lift?

Lift is defined as the component of the aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the flow direction, and drag is the component that is parallel to the flow direction.

## How to Calculate Maximum Lift over Drag?

Maximum Lift over Drag calculator uses Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Landing Mass Fraction* (((Aspect Ratio of a wing)/ (Aircraft wetted area/Reference Area))^(0.5)) to calculate the Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft, The Maximum Lift over Drag formula directly and mainly the fuel and battery weight estimation. The Landing mass fraction varies wrt different aircraft types. Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft is denoted by L/Dmax symbol.

How to calculate Maximum Lift over Drag using this online calculator? To use this online calculator for Maximum Lift over Drag, enter Landing Mass Fraction (KLD), Aspect Ratio of a wing (AR), Aircraft wetted area (Swet) & Reference Area (S) and hit the calculate button. Here is how the Maximum Lift over Drag calculation can be explained with given input values -> 19.79899 = 14* (((4)/ (10/5))^(0.5)) .

### FAQ

What is Maximum Lift over Drag?
The Maximum Lift over Drag formula directly and mainly the fuel and battery weight estimation. The Landing mass fraction varies wrt different aircraft types and is represented as L/Dmax = KLD* (((AR)/ (Swet/S))^(0.5)) or Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Landing Mass Fraction* (((Aspect Ratio of a wing)/ (Aircraft wetted area/Reference Area))^(0.5)) . Landing Mass Fraction is a constant that depends on the various different aircraft types, The Aspect Ratio of a wing is defined as the ratio of its span to its mean chord, The aircraft wetted area is the surface area that interacts with the working fluid or gas & The Reference Area is arbitrarily an area that is characteristic of the object being considered. For an aircraft wing, the wing's planform area is called the reference wing area or simply wing area.
How to calculate Maximum Lift over Drag?
The Maximum Lift over Drag formula directly and mainly the fuel and battery weight estimation. The Landing mass fraction varies wrt different aircraft types is calculated using Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Landing Mass Fraction* (((Aspect Ratio of a wing)/ (Aircraft wetted area/Reference Area))^(0.5)) . To calculate Maximum Lift over Drag, you need Landing Mass Fraction (KLD), Aspect Ratio of a wing (AR), Aircraft wetted area (Swet) & Reference Area (S). With our tool, you need to enter the respective value for Landing Mass Fraction, Aspect Ratio of a wing, Aircraft wetted area & Reference Area and hit the calculate button. You can also select the units (if any) for Input(s) and the Output as well.
How many ways are there to calculate Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft?
In this formula, Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft uses Landing Mass Fraction, Aspect Ratio of a wing, Aircraft wetted area & Reference Area. We can use 4 other way(s) to calculate the same, which is/are as follows -
• Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = (Range of aircraft*Specific Fuel Consumption)/(Velocity at maximum lift to drag ratio*ln(Weight of aircraft at beginning of Cruise phase/Weight of aircraft at end of Cruise phase))
• Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = (Range of aircraft*Specific Fuel Consumption)/(Propeller efficiency*ln(Weight of aircraft at beginning of Cruise phase/Weight of aircraft at end of Cruise phase))
• Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = (Endurance of aircraft*Specific Fuel Consumption)/ln(Weight of aircraft at beginning of Loiter phase/Weight of aircraft at end of Loiter phase)
• Maximum Lift to Drag ratio of Aircraft = Lift to Drag ratio at maximum Endurance/0.866 Let Others Know